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“In the context of ritual initiation, ancestral spirits may assume the form of masks to assist in transmitting knowledge of this history down through the generations.These ancestral spirits are known as Makishi and may be seen as the masked dancers. They ʻrise up from the graveʼ and are central to any study characterising the ritual art, history and ancient language of the Chokwe.
Wars and religious and ethnic movements have had a devastating effect on these societies, especially in South East Angola where over three decades of war, displacements and devastation have occurred.
Missionary influences as well as other forces continue to impact on these human societies and their way of life.”
Marcus Matthe
“Chokwe Art and its History”

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